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What is Glucose Monohydrate?

Mar 27, 2024

 Glucose (GLC), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate of biology. It is used by living cells as a source of energy and metabolic intermediates. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and begins cellular respiration in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The name comes from the Greek word glykys, which means "sweet", plus the suffix "OSE" for sugar. The stereoisomer of the sugar aldohexose, glucose, only one of which (D-glucose) is biologically active. This form (D-glucose) is often referred to as glucose monohydrate or, especially in the food industry, simple glucose (dextrose).

This article deals with D-glucose. The mirror molecule L-glucose, cannot be metabolized by cells by the biochemical processes known as glycolysis. Glucose is produced commercially by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. Many crops can be used as sources of starch. Corn, rice, wheat, potato, cassava, jicama, and sago are all used worldwide. In the United States, corn starch (maize) is used almost exclusively. Glucose is ubiquitous as a biofuel. It is used as an energy source in most organisms, from bacteria to humans. Glucose can be utilized by either aerobic or anaerobic respiration (fermentation). Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the human body, providing about 3.75 kcal of energy per gram of food (16 kJ) through aerobic respiration. Breakdown of carbohydrate (e.g., starch) production, mono- and disaccharides, most of which are glucose.

Through the reactions of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (OAI), glucose is oxidized, eventually forming carbon dioxide and water, producing energy, mostly in the form of ATP. The insulin response, and other mechanisms, regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood. High fasting blood glucose levels are indicative of pre-diabetic and diabetic conditions. Glucose is the main source of energy for the brain, so its availability affects mental processes. When glucose is low, mental processes that require mental effort (e.g., self-control) are impaired. Glucose production is critical in protein and lipid metabolism. In addition, in plants and most animals, it is a precursor to vitamin C (ascorbic acid) production. It modifies the glycolytic pathway used in these processes.

Glucose is used as a precursor for the synthesis of several important substances. Starch solution starch, cellulose, and glycogen ("animal starch") are common glucose polymers (polysaccharides). Lactose, the main sugar in milk, is a glucose-galactose disaccharide. Add sucrose, another important disaccharide, to glucose, and fructose. These synthesis processes also rely on glucose phosphate as the first step through glycolysis.

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Glucose Monohydrate



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